Total Knee Replacement Surgery

About the process:

Knee replacement is a surgical procedure to resurface a knee damaged by arthritis or any external damage. Metal and plastic parts are used to cap the ends of the bones that form the knee joint, along with the kneecap. This surgery can be performed for someone who has arthritis or a severe knee injury.
The goal of knee replacement surgery is to resurface the parts of the knee joint that have been damaged and to relieve knee pain that cannot be controlled by other treatments.

What is the procedure


The procedure starts from checking basic vitals like blood pressure, heart rate, body temperature, and oxygenation levels of the patient and then a mark is made on the knee undergoing surgery. Anesthesia is administered whether regional area or on the whole body. The surgeon makes an deep incision down the centre of the, and then cuts through deeper tissue, including the quadriceps tendon, and flips over the kneecap to access the femur and tibia.
Alternatively, some surgeons make smaller incisions and use minimally invasive techniques for total knee replacement. The knee is bent to 90 degrees so there is scope of accessibility for the surgeon. The surgeon uses a bone saw to remove the arthritically damaged areas at bottom of the femur and the top of the tibia. Surgeon may resurface the back of the kneecap, or patella, and attach an implant. A polyethylene component may be attached to facilitate the patella’s gliding against the new joint. Components are attached to the femur and tibia and patella. A flexible cushion made of polyethylene is attached on top of the new tibia surfaces.
This spacer acts as a shock absorber between the two new prosthetic surfaces. The leg is flexed and extended to test the fit of the components and the new knee’s range of motion. The surgeon straightens the knee to allow the components, cement, and bone to bond together. Because the bone cement is fast acting, this takes only about 10 minutes. The surgeon will repair any deep tissue that was cut during surgery and then stitch the skin at the incision.


Quick facts

  • knee replacement is performed for osteoarthritis, Rheumatoid arthritis, psoriatic arthritis.
  • Knee replacement can be partial or total.
  • It required a hospital stay of 5-6 days.